Beer Dictionary

We have some terms that are typical for brewing, it is better to explain them here, so there will be no doubt when you will read and follow the instructions for brewing some beer styles.



Aeration Air (oxygen) entry into wort
Alcohol Ethanol
Ale Type of beer using top fermenting yeast
Alpha Acid Chemical compound in hops for bitterness
Alpha Amylase Enzymes that converts sugars from starch
Beta Amylase Enzymes that converts sugars from starch
Barley Cereal grain
Beta Acid Chemical compound in hops for bitterness
Bitterness One of the basic tastes
Boiling Rapid vaporization of a liquid
Bottle conditioning Process by which beer is naturally carbonated in the bottle
Brew kettle Kettle  where wort is boiled
Carbonation Process of dissolving carbon dioxide in a liquid
Conditioning Phase in brewing process where beer is aged after fermentation to prevent unwanted flavors and compounds formation
Decoction Mash Mashing method in which we raise the temperature of the mash by removing a portion, boiling it, returning it to the mash tun.
Dry hopping Hop adding late in the brewing process for increasing aroma without affecting bitterness.
Ethanol Ethyl alcohol
Fermentable sugars Sugars that can be consumed by yeast
Fermentation Metabolic process that converts fermentable sugars to alcohol and carbon dioxide
Fermentation Airlock One-way valve that alows carbon dioxide to escape from the fermentor and prevents air and other ambient contaminants to entry
Final Gravity Specific gravity of beer when fermentation is complete
Germination Growth of a barley grain as it produces a rootlet and acrospire
Grist Ground malt and grains ready for mashing
Heat Exchanger device to cool down the hot wort
Hop Flower used for flavoring, stability at beer
Homebrewing Making beer at home
Hopping Hop addition
Hot break Flocculation of proteins and tannins during boiling of wort
Husk Outer layer of cereals
Hydrometer An instrument that is used to measure specific gravity of beer
Infusion mash Mashing method at which we achive target temperature of mashing by addition of heated water
Inoculate Inserting yeast into cooled wort
International Bitterness Units (IBU) Measure of bitterness – miligrams of isomeized alpha acid per liter of beer (ppm)
Irish Moss Beer clarifier
Lace Patern of foam sticking to the sides of glass
Lager Type of beer using bottom fermenting yeast
Lagering Storing lagers in cold places near freezing temperatures for beer improvement
Lauter Tun Vessel with a false bottom and drain spigot where mash is allowed to settle so the wort is removed from the grains
Lautering Process of separating wort from grains
Lovibond Scale used for color measuring of grains and beer
Malt Germinated and dried Barley (Cereal)
Maltose Fermentable sugar
Mash Mixture of ground malt and hot water
Mash Tun Vessel where mashing is done
Mashing Process for converting grain starches to fermentable sugars and some other compounds
Mashing Out Process of raising temperature to 76,7 °C/170 °F.-stop the enzymes
Milling Grinding of malt, so the extraction of sugars is possible in the mashing process
Original Gravity (OG) Specific gravity of wort before fermentation
Oxidation Chemical reaction – bad taste
pH Degree of acidity and alkalinity
Pitching Addition of yeast to cooled wort
Primary fementation First fermentation, where the bulk of fermentable sugars are converted to ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide
Priming Fermantable sugars addition to fermented beer before bottling for carbonation
Racking Process of transfering beer from one vessel to another
Residual Sugar Leftover sugarthat the yeast did not consume during fermentation
Secondary Fermentation Second fermentation, slower stage
Sediment The lag of solid matter settled at the bottom of fermentors, vessels, bottles
Sparging Process in lautering – spraying mash grains with hot water
Specific Gravity The ratio of the density of a substance to the density of the water
Standard Reference Method (SRM) Method and scale brewers uses for beer color
Step Infusion Mashing method where the temperature of mash is raised by adding hot water, then stirring and stabilizing the mash at the target step temperature
Temperature Rest Adjusting fermentable sugar profiles by brewer
Vorlauf At the beginning of lautering, prior to collecting wort in brew kettle – recirculation of wort from the lauter tun back to the top of grain bed to clarify the wort
Whirlpool Method of collecting hot break material in the center of the kette by stirring the wort until vortex is formed
Wort Mixture of water, extracted sugars and other compounds during mashing
Yeast Microorganisms – during fermentation yeast converts fermentable sugars to carbon dioxide and alcohol